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   2015| May-August  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 18, 2015

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A comparative study of visual and auditory reaction times on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical first year students
Aditya Jain, Ramta Bansal, Avnish Kumar, KD Singh
May-August 2015, 5(2):124-127
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157168  PMID:26097821
Background: Reaction time (RT) is a measure of the response to a stimulus. RT plays a very important role in our lives as its practical implications may be of great consequences. Factors that can affect the average human RT include age, sex, left or right hand, central versus peripheral vision, practice, fatigue, fasting, breathing cycle, personality types, exercise, and intelligence of the subject. Aim: The aim was to compare visual RTs (VRTs) and auditory RTs (ARTs) on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical 1 st year students. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 healthy medical students in age group of 18-20 years. RT for target stimulus that is, for the beep tone for measuring ART, and red circle for measuring VRT was determined using Inquisit 4.0 (Computer Software) in the laptop. The task was to press the spacebar as soon as the stimulus is presented. Five readings of each stimulus were taken, and their respective fastest RT's for each stimuli were recorded. Statistical analysis was done. Results: In both the sexes' RT to the auditory stimulus was significantly less (P < 0.001) as compared to the visual stimulus. Significant difference was found between RT of male and female medical students (P < 0.001) as well as between sedentary and regularly exercising healthy medical 1 st year students. Conclusion: The ART is faster than the VRT in medical students. Furthermore, male medical students have faster RTs as compared to female medical students for both auditory as well as visual stimuli. Regularly exercising medical students have faster RTs when compared with medical students with sedentary lifestyles.
  71 15,958 2,085
Real world data: Additional source for making clinical decisions
Rajiv Mahajan
May-August 2015, 5(2):82-82
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157148  PMID:26097811
  45 3,058 595
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
Kwabena Nsiah, V Owusua Shang, K Agyenim Boateng, FO Mensah
May-August 2015, 5(2):133-138
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157170  PMID:26097823
Background: The diabetic condition is influenced by several factors, some of which can accelerate the disease's progression to various complications that aggravate the morbidity. Aims: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components and the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 150 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and was conducted at the Diabetes Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, the Ashanti Region of Ghana, from February, 2013 to April, 2013. The study involved the use of a questionnaire to obtain some information on the diabetics, undertaking anthropometric measurements, as well as collecting blood samples for the measurement of some biochemical parameters; fasting blood glucose and lipid profile. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: The prevalence of MetS was 58% in the studied Ghanaian population. Hypertension was the commonest risk factor (60%), followed by central obesity (48.67%) and dyslipidemia (37%). Female type 2 diabetics had a higher prevalence of MetS, and carried more components than their male counterparts. Regression analysis showed three factors; femininity, high body mass index and low educational status were the most critical predictive risk factors of MetS, according to this study. Conclusion: With hypertension being the commonest component, future cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should focus attention on its management and prevention, through education.
  36 3,533 750
Phentermine-topiramate: First combination drug for obesity
Jagjit Singh, Rajiv Kumar
May-August 2015, 5(2):157-158
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157177  PMID:26097830
Obesity is spreading globally at an alarming speed. The management of obesity is multifaceted and includes lifestyle modifications as the cornerstone. Until only orlistat was approved for long term use in obesity. The US Food and Drug Administration granted approval to a fixed dose mid 2012 combination of phentermine immediate release and topiramate extended release in 2012 for treatment of obese patients or overweight patients with comorbid conditions. The new drug has shown significant weight loss compared with placebo for a period up to 2 years.
  11 7,055 589
Growth inhibitory effects of crude pomegranate peel extract on chronic myeloid leukemia, K562 cells
Mat Jusoh Siti Asmaa, Al-Jamal Hamid Ali, Johan Muhammad Farid, Seeni Azman
May-August 2015, 5(2):100-105
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157154  PMID:26097816
Background: Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is currently a member of Lythraceae family which has potentially cytotoxic activities. Numerous studies have been done on cytotoxic components of pomegranate's juices, barks and leaves. The peels, which considered as a waste, contain higher antioxidant components compared with other parts of the plant. Aim: To investigate the potential anti-cancer activity of pomegranate peel on growth and cell death mechanisms of chronic myeloid leukemic (CML) cells, K562. Materials and Methods: Punica granatum peels extract (PGPE) was extracted by successive ethanol extraction, 80% (v/v), freeze dried, diluted to 20 mg/mL working concentration and was subjected to phytochemical screening. K562 cell was treated with crude PGPE for 72 h. Following IC 50 concentration, the apoptosis, cell cycle and protein analysis were evaluated. Cell growth inhibition assay was performed by conventional trypan blue exclusion assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed by flow-cytometry using BD apoptosis and cell cycle kits and protein analysis by western blotting. All the results are expressed as mean ΁ standard error of mean of three independent experiments. Statistical analysis was performed by nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Results demonstrated that PGPE promotes growth inhibition of K562 cells mainly via G2/M phase arrest while still conserving apoptosis induction, but at a lower rate. Apoptosis activities were proposed by the up-regulation of caspases and cytochrome c with an elevated level of p21 and p53. Conclusion: PGPE caused an inhibition in cell proliferation of CML cell mainly by cell cycle arrest.
  9 2,587 411
Comparative efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in oppositional defiant disorder comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Jasmin Garg, Priti Arun, BS Chavan
May-August 2015, 5(2):114-118
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157162  PMID:26097819
Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is frequently comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and is associated with substantial functional impairments. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are well-established drugs for the management of ADHD. Some studies from Western countries have reported these drugs to be effective in the management of ODD comorbid with ADHD. This study aimed to assess if methylphenidate and atomoxetine are efficacious in treating Indian children with ODD comorbid with ADHD. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective, open-label study, 37 patients of age 6-14 years with a diagnosis of ODD comorbid with ADHD randomly received either methylphenidate (dose 0.2-1 mg/kg/day) or atomoxetine (dose 0.5-1.2 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Improvements in ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed using Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic parent rating scale (VADPRS). Results: At 8 weeks, there were statistically significant improvements in both ADHD and ODD symptoms in both methylphenidate and atomoxetine groups, as per VADPRS. The improvements produced and tolerability was comparable in the two groups. 80% of the patients from methylphenidate group and 64.3% patients from atomoxetine group ceased to fulfill the criteria for the presence of ODD at 8 weeks. Conclusions: Methylphenidate and atomoxetine are effective in the treatment of ODD comorbid with ADHD in short duration.
  9 2,838 345
Which score should be used in intubated patients' Glasgow coma scale or full outline of unresponsiveness?
Mohammad Ali Heidari Gorji, Ali Morad Heidari Gorji, Seyed Hossein Hosseini
May-August 2015, 5(2):92-95
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157152  PMID:26097814
Background and Aims: Today Glasgow coma scale (GCS) is the most well-known and common score for evaluation of the level of consciousness and outcome predict after traumatic brain injuries in the world. Regarding to some advantages of the full outline of unresponsiveness (FOUR) score over GCS in intubated patients, we're going to compare the precision of these two scores in predicting the outcome predict in intubated patients. Methods: This research was a diagnostic-based study, which was conducted prospectively on 80 patients with Traumatic brain injury who were intubated and admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Educational Hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Science during February 2013 to August 2013.The scores of FOUR and GCS were measured by the researcher in the first 24 h of admission in ICU. The information's recorded in the check list including the mortality rate of early and late inside of the hospital interred to excel. The findings were analyzed using SPSS software, through descriptive statistics and regression logistic. Results: The results showed of 80 patients 21 patients (20%) were female and 59 patients (80%) were male. The age average of the samples was 33.80 ΁ 12.60 ranging from 16 to 60 years old. 21 patients (26.2%) died during treatment. Of 21 patients, 15 patients died during first 14 days (18.7%) and 6 patients died after 14 years (7.5%). The area under curve (AUC) of FOUR score in early mortality was 0.90 (C 1 = 0.95, 0.88-0.90). The amount AUC for GCS was 0.80 (C 1 = 0.95, 0.78-0.84), which in delayed mortality it was ordered as 0.86 (C 1 = 0.95, 0.84-0.90) and 0.89 (C 1 = 0.95, 0.78-0.88). Conclusion: The research results indicated that FOUR score is more exact and more practical in intubated patients regarding lack of verbal response factor in early mortality prediction in GCS. Hence, it is recommended for health professionals to use the FOUR score to predict the early outcome of intubated patients with traumatic brain injuries.
  8 4,074 591
Clinical profile of human immunodeficiency virus patients with opportunistic infections: A descriptive case series study
K Ramesh, Sangeetha Gandhi, Vishwas Rao
May-August 2015, 5(2):119-123
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157166  PMID:26097820
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virus, causative agent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, is fast becoming a major threat in the Indian subcontinent, with an estimated 3.7 million persons being infected with HIV. HIV infection is complicated by various opportunistic infections (OIs) such as tuberculosis (TB), candidiasis, herpes zoster, Pneumocystis jirvoceii, cytomegalovirus (CMV) etc., This study carried out to know the clinical profile of HIV patients with OIs. Methods: A case series study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in Bellary, Karnataka, India. A hospital based case series study was conducted among 164 HIV patients with OIs admitted to various wards as well as attending outpatient department at Vijayanagara Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Bellary during Jan 2013 to Nov 2013. Both primary and secondary data was collected to gather information on clinical profile. The statistical tests used were descriptive statistics and independent t test. Results: Among 164 patients, 29.3% were females and 68.3% males. High proportions of patients were observed in 28-37 years of age group and heterosexual route was the most common mode of transmission. TB (50%) is the most frequent OI followed by candidiasis (49%), pneumocystis (16%) and others. The mean CD4 cell count in TB was 237.02/mL and in candidiasis 189.07/mL. Low values were observed in promyelocytic leukemia (18.10/mL), CMV (18.5/mL) and in toxoplasmosis (73.1/mL). Conclusions: Respiratory system was the most common system involved by OIs and most of patients with OIs had CD4 T cell count below 200/mL, whereas there were no patients in the study with counts above 500/mL.
  6 2,067 322
The association between abdominal obesity and serum cholesterol level
Gholamreza Veghari, Mehdi Sedaghat, Siavash Maghsodlo, Samieh Banihashem, Pooneh Moharloei, Abdolhamid Angizeh, Ebrahim Tazik, Abbas Moghaddami, Hamidreza Joshaghani
May-August 2015, 5(2):83-86
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157150  PMID:26097812
Background: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the association between serum cholesterol level and abdominal obesity in adult men and women in the north of Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted on the 1956 subjects (990 men and 966 women) between 25 and 65 years old chosen by cluster sampling. Plasma cholesterol was measured in the morning after a 12 h fast and determined by auto-analyzer. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) was defined by a total plasma cholesterol level over 200 mg/dl. Waist circumference ≥102 cm and ≥88 cm in men and women were defined as abdominal obesity. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analysis and P < 0.05 considered as statistical significance. Results: Averagely, the mean of age was 44.2 years and mean ΁ standard deviation of plasma total cholesterol level was 203 ΁ 11.3 mg/dl. The HC was seen in 50.8% of subjects with a more common in women than in men. Compared with normal subjects, in abdominal obese people, the odds ratio (OR) of HC was (OR = 4.208 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.939-9.130]) and (OR = 3.956 [95% CI: 1.821-8.592]) in men aged 25-35 and 35-45 years, respectively. In women aged 25-35 years, it was (OR = 3.444 [95% CI: 1.959-6.056]) in abdominal obese compared with normal subjects. Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia was revealed as a major health problem among adults, and it was associated with abdominal obesity especially in the early middle-age in the north of Iran. This association was not significant in men and women after the age of 45 and 35, respectively.
  5 2,482 411
A comparative study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination topical preparations in acne vulgaris
Jasleen Kaur, Vijay K Sehgal, Anita K Gupta, Surinder P Singh
May-August 2015, 5(2):106-110
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157155  PMID:26097817
Background: The combinations of topical keratolytics with anti-microbials and topical retinoids with antimicrobials are commonly prescribed in the treatment of acne. Aim: The present study was undertaken with the aim of comparing the efficacy and safety of topical benzoyl peroxide and clindamycin versus topical benzoyl peroxide and nadifloxacin versus topical tretinoin and clindamycin in patients of acne vulgaris. Materials and Methods: 100 patients between 15 and 35 years having ≥2 and ≤30 inflammatory and/or noninflammatory lesions with Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score 2/3 were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group A was prescribed benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel and clindamycin 1% gel, Group B was prescribed benzoyl peroxide 2.5% gel and nadifloxacin 1% cream and Group C was prescribed tretinoin 0.025% and clindamycin 1% gel. Total number of lesions and adverse effects during the treatment were assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12 weeks with IGA score. Results: There was statistically significant reduction in total number of lesions with better improvement in Group A. Adverse drug reactions during the study showed a better safety profile of Group B which is found to be statistically significant also. Conclusion: These findings confirm that Group A is more efficacious and Group B is safest among the other two groups.
  4 3,880 698
Angiosarcoma of mandible: An uncommon clinical entity
Suresh K Sachdeva, Sanjay Dutta, Purnendu Rout
May-August 2015, 5(2):142-144
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157172  PMID:26097825
Angiosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm of endothelial cells of blood vessels, representing 2% of all sarcomas. The occurrence of angiosarcoma in the oral cavity is a rare. In general management includes resection and wide-field postoperative radiation therapy. The risk of local-regional failure and distant relapse is still a cause of worry. Herewith, a case of angiosarcoma of mandible in a female patient is presented, who presented with small, innocent-looking mass, which became a highly destructive malignant tumor within few days.
  3 1,563 209
Cytological features of malignant eccrine acrospiroma presenting as a soft tissue mass axilla: A rare sweat gland tumor with histologic correlation
Pinki Pandey, Alok Dixit, Subrat Chandra, Aparna Tanwar
May-August 2015, 5(2):145-148
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157173  PMID:26097826
Malignant eccrine acrospiroma is an infrequent, highly malignant primary skin tumor derived from eccrine sweat glands. Though fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established diagnostic tool, but if a skin adnexal tumor or primary skin lesion is suspected clinically, the usual approach is biopsy due to easy accessibility. Being itself rare, cytologic features of this lesion is hardly encountered in case reports. As a result, very little is known about the appearance of adnexal tumors like malignant eccrine acrospiroma on fine-needle aspiration samples. A 50-year-old man presented with swelling in the left axilla, clinically suspected to be a soft tissue sarcoma. Fine-needle aspiration was advised, and a cytological diagnosis of malignant eccrine acrospiroma was rendered which was later confirmed on histological examination. Rapid, accurate diagnosis of these tumors is imperative as they have very poor prognosis and an aggressive course with recurrence and/or metastasis. FNAC plays a decisive and easy diagnostic modality in these unusual, rare cases of highly malignant primary skin tumor, and awareness of the lesions is indispensable in their management.
  2 1,909 208
Blood utilization in orthopedic and trauma practice
Bader Kamal Tayara, Moaad Hatim Al-Faraidy, Faisal Abdullah Al-Sayel, Abdallah S Al-Omran, Mir Sadat-Ali
May-August 2015, 5(2):111-113
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157156  PMID:26097818
Objectives: Very little is known about blood utilization in orthopedic and trauma surgery and there is no definite policy in this regard. Our objective is to perform an audit on our practice of blood utilization in the orthopedic department. Methods: We have retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who were admitted between January 2011 and December 2012 to the orthopedic male, female and pediatric wards for which blood products were requested. Results: Three hundred and eight patients were admitted for surgery during the study period. The average age was 35.12 ± 20.4 years and postsurgery they stayed in the hospital for 25.60 ± 10.5 days. Blood products were requested for 223 trauma surgeries. In elective orthopedic procedures, only 42.78% of the blood requested was utilized while in trauma patients it was 55.25%. Conclusions: A substantial amount of blood and its product was used in trauma and elective orthopedic surgeries. There was a major discrepancy between the blood requested and utilized and secondly in the majority single unit transfusion was utilized, which is not within the fundamentals of blood transfusion.
  2 1,951 234
Long term outcome analysis of role of radiotherapy in Grade I meningiomas: A single centre experience from North India
Ritesh Kumar, Narendra Kumar, Divya Khosla, SK Gupta, BD Radotra, Suresh C Sharma
May-August 2015, 5(2):128-132
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157169  PMID:26097822
Background: Intracranial meningiomas are the second most common tumor of the central nervous system. Grade I tumors are the most common variety of meningioma and have a benign course. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment. Radiotherapy (RT) decreases the local recurrence rates and progression in patients with subtotal excision (STE). The authors present our institute's experience in combined modality management of 18 successive patients of Grade I meningioma. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 18 patients of Grade I meningioma treated in our institute from 2003 to 2011. Clinical characteristics and treatment modality in form of surgery and RT were noted. Statistical analysis was done with regards to recurrence free survival and overall survival using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results: The median age of the patients was 52.5 years. Seven patients were males and 11 patients were females. The median duration of symptoms was 8 months. Headache was the most common presenting symptom followed by vomiting, seizures, motor weakness and visual deficits. Five patients underwent complete excision while 13 had STE. 11 patients received early RT while 5 patients received RT at recurrence. Median RT dose delivered was 50 Gy. RT had significant effect on local control especially in subtotal resections, with overall 93.75% local control rates. Conclusions: Grade I meningiomas represent a benign neoplasm. The mainstay of therapy is gross total resection at the initial surgery. Postoperative adjuvant RT should be offered to patients with subtotal resection. Long-term follow-up is important as local recurrences and progression can develop years after the initial treatment.
  2 2,594 314
Ruptured ovarian pregnancy in a primigravida
Shailaja Prabhala, Jayashankar Erukkambattu, Anuradha Dogiparthi, Prashanth Kumar, Ramamurti Tanikella
May-August 2015, 5(2):151-153
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157175  PMID:26097828
Primary ovarian ectopic pregnancy is a rare entity and is associated with rupture very early in the gestation. We present a case of ovarian pregnancy in a primi gravida, which ruptured relatively late in the first trimester. The patient did not have any predisposing factors for ovarian pregnancy. The case was managed laparoscopically, and the diagnosis was based on surgical and histopathological findings.
  1 1,661 216
Intraparotid schwannoma: A rare case report
Ajeet Kumar Khilnani, Rekha Thaddanee, Babubhai Parmar, Pranat Majmundar
May-August 2015, 5(2):154-156
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157176  PMID:26097829
Pleomorphic adenomas are the most common tumors which present as parotid masses. Shwannoma (peripheral nerve sheath tumor) is a rare entity in this region. Very few schwannomas originate from the facial nerve and in the majority of these cases the tumor involves its intratemporal part. The following case is reported because it presented as an asymptomatic parotid swelling with normal seventh nerve function, which masqueraded as pleomorphic adenoma clinically, radiologically and cytologically. However, it turned out to be peripheral nerve sheath tumor on histopathological examination.
  1 1,672 227
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the urinary bladder: A diagnostic challange and therapeutic dilemma
Aneeta Singh, Mega Lahori, Arvind Khajuria, Sunil Gupta
May-August 2015, 5(2):149-150
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157174  PMID:26097827
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare, aggressive tumor of indeterminate malignant potential with myofibroblastic differentiation. Though bladder location is very uncommon, it arises from the bladder submucosal stroma as a polypoidal growth and is easily mistaken for a malignant neoplasm- clinically, radiologically and histologically. Essential criteria for the diagnosis of IMT are: spindle myoepithelial cell proliferation and lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. Here we report the case of a 30 years old man who presented with painless gross haematuria for 2 weeks. The patient underwent open partial cystectomy and the final pathological diagnosis was IMT of bladder.
  - 1,884 248
Papillary cystic variant of acinic cell carcinoma presenting as parotid tail tumor
Sabina Khan, Mukta Pujani, Mohd Jaseem Hassan, Sujata Jetley
May-August 2015, 5(2):139-141
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157171  PMID:26097824
Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon low-grade tumor of the salivary glands that constitutes 2.5-4% of parotid gland tumors. Papillary cystic variant (PCV) of ACC is even rarer and can be diagnosed on histopathological examination only. It is important to diagnose this variant as it carries a poor prognosis when compared with other variants of ACC and is known to be universally fatal in 10 years. The present case describes ACC-PCV in a 20-year-old male, which presented as a slow growing parotid tail tumor and was misdiagnosed as a benign lesion both cytologically and radiologically. This case emphasizes the importance of histopathological examination in parotid masses as well as the need to consider malignant lesion in the differential diagnosis of a parotid tail tumor.
  - 1,839 281
Aging: Molecular insight
Samarth Shukla, Sourya Acharya
May-August 2015, 5(2):81-81
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157147  PMID:26097810
  - 1,529 249
A prescription event monitoring study on the utility of garenoxacin, a newer fluoroquinolone in India
Anoop Hajare, Amandeep Gupta, Saiprasad Patil, K Krishnaprasad, Amit Bhargava
May-August 2015, 5(2):87-91
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157151  PMID:26097813
Background: Prescription event monitoring (PEM) study is conducted worldwide. The main objective of such study is to monitor the adverse events when a drug is being prescribed in "real life clinical" settings. PEM studies are being looked upon as an essential observational tool of postmarketing surveillance. Garenoxacin, a newer fluoroquinolone offers an excellent spectrum of antimicrobial coverage, which includes Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobes and atypical microorganism. This broad spectrum of activity is attributed to its unique structure. Aim: The aim was to assess the safety profile of garenoxacin in Indian settings. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 doctors across the country participated in the study. Data from 12,498 patients was obtained. Monitoring of each patient was done for any adverse events. Results: As an initial line of therapy garenoxacin was preferred in majority of cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Adverse events were reported in 159 patients which included 0.5% cases with nausea/vomiting, 0.1% cases with diarrhea. Central nervous system side-effects like drowsiness or dizziness was reported in 0.02% of the cases. All the adverse events were of mild to moderate severity and did not require hospitalization. Conclusion: Garenoxacin a novel desfluoroquinolone appears to be an ideal antimicrobial agent for the treatment of various respiratory tract infections including CAP. With superior safety profile, excellent antimicrobial coverage and a convenient once a day dosing garenoxacin appears to improve the patient compliance.
  - 2,472 293
Volumetric and cost evaluation study of glaucoma medical therapy
Hemant Kumar Banga, Anita K Gupta, Gursatinder Singh
May-August 2015, 5(2):96-99
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157153  PMID:26097815
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in mentioned volume and measured volume of the eye drops and to find out the yearly cost of various antiglaucoma drugs. Methods: It was an experimental and purely laboratory study. Total of 245 bottles of 49 different brands, five of each brand of antiglaucoma drug were analyzed. Number of drops were counted, and volume was measured from each bottle. On the basis of data collected yearly cost of each brand was calculated. Results: Of the 245 bottles, 152 bottles (62.04%) had underfilling. Yearly cost of most of the antiglaucoma drugs lies between Rs. 423.40 and Rs. 6263.40. Conclusion: Measured volume and drops are the major determinants of the cost of medical therapy of glaucoma. Most of the bottles showed underfilling and it was the significant finding. Less number of drops and lesser volume increases the cost of treatment indirectly.
  - 2,164 254