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Chloroquine: Can it be a Novel Drug for COVID-19
Dinesh Kumar Badyal, Rajiv Mahajan
April-June 2020, 10(2):128-130
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The United States Food and Drug Administration has not approved any drug or vaccine for the treatment of COVID-19; however, reports have emerged from different parts of the world about the potential therapeutic benefits of existing drugs. Chloroquine and phosphate hydroxychloroquine are the drugs currently in the limelight, and recently, the National Task Force for COVID-19 constituted by the Indian Council of Medical Research has recommended the use of antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine for prophylaxis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 infection in selected high-risk individuals. This short write-up explores the potential efficacy and established safety of chloroquine in COVID-19.
  29,066 778 -
Formulation and design of sustained release matrix tablets of metformin hydrochloride: Influence of hypromellose and polyacrylate polymers
Harekrishna Roy, Chandan K Brahma, Sisir Nandi, Kirti R Parida
January-June 2013, 3(1):55-63
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.112242  PMID:23776841
Aim: The current paper was an attempt to design a sustained release dosage form using various grades of hydrophilic polymers, Hypromellose (hydroxyl-propyl methylcellulose [HPMC] K15M, HPMC K100M and HPMC K200M) and Polyacrylate polymers, Eudragit RL100 and Eudragit RS100 with or without incorporating ethyl cellulose on a matrix-controlled drug delivery system of Metformin hydrochloride. Materials and Methods: Laboratory scale batches of nine tablet formulations were prepared by wet granulation technique (Low shear). Micromeritic properties of the granules were evaluated prior to compression. Tablets were characterized as crushing strength, friability, weight variation, thickness, drug content or assay and evaluated for in-vitro release pattern for 12 h using Phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 at 37 ± 0.5°C. The in-vitro release mechanism was evaluated by kinetic modeling. Results and Discussion: The results obtained revealed that HPMC K200M at a concentration of 26% in formulation (F6) was able to sustain the drug release for 12 h and followed the Higuchi pattern quasi-Fickian diffusion. With that, combined effect of HPMC K15M as an extragranular section and Eudragit RS100 displayed a significant role in drug release. Dissolution data were compared with innovator for similarity factor (f2), and exhibited an acceptable value of ≥50 Three production validation scale batches were designed based on lab scale best batch and charged for stability testing, parameters were within the limit of acceptance. There was no chemical interaction found between the drug and excipients during Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential scanning calorimetry study. Conclusion: Hence, combinely HPMC K200M and Eudragit RS100 at a suitable concentration can effectively be used to sustain drug release.
  18,648 1,719 9
Yawning and its physiological significance
Sharat Gupta, Shallu Mittal
January-June 2013, 3(1):11-15
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.112230  PMID:23776833
Although yawning is a commonly witnessed human behavior, yet it has not been taught in much detail in medical schools because, until the date, no particular physiological significance has been associated with it. It is characterized by opening up of mouth which is accompanied by a long inspiration, with a brief interruption of ventilation and followed by a short expiration. Since time immemorial, yawning has been associated with drowsiness and boredom. However, this age old belief is all set to change as the results of some newer studies have pointed out that yawning might be a way by which our body is trying to accomplish some more meaningful goals. In this review, we have tried to put together some of the important functions that have been proposed by a few authors, with the hope that this article will stimulate the interest of newer researchers in this hitherto unexplored f ield.
  17,599 1,177 8
Cracked tooth syndrome: Overview of literature
Shamimul Hasan, Kuldeep Singh, Naseer Salati
September-December 2015, 5(3):164-168
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.165376  PMID:26539363
Pain is defined as an "unpleasant sensory and emotional feeling which is associated with actual or potential injury of tissue or expressed in terms of such injury." Tooth pain usually refers to pain around the teeth or jaws mainly as a result of a dental condition. Mostly, toothaches are caused by a carious cavity, a broken tooth, an exposed tooth root or gum disease. The toothache may sometimes be the result of radiating pain from structures in the vicinity of tooth and jaws (cardiac pain, ear, nose, throat pain, and sinusitis). Therefore, evaluation by both dentists and physicians are sometimes necessary to diagnose medical illnesses causing "toothache." Cracked tooth syndrome is a major diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are complicated due to lack of awareness of this condition and its bizarre clinical features. Early diagnosis has been linked with successful restorative management and good prognosis. This article provides a detailed literature on the causes, classification, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment planning of cracked tooth syndrome.
  16,162 2,076 14
A comparative study of visual and auditory reaction times on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical first year students
Aditya Jain, Ramta Bansal, Avnish Kumar, KD Singh
May-August 2015, 5(2):124-127
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.157168  PMID:26097821
Background: Reaction time (RT) is a measure of the response to a stimulus. RT plays a very important role in our lives as its practical implications may be of great consequences. Factors that can affect the average human RT include age, sex, left or right hand, central versus peripheral vision, practice, fatigue, fasting, breathing cycle, personality types, exercise, and intelligence of the subject. Aim: The aim was to compare visual RTs (VRTs) and auditory RTs (ARTs) on the basis of gender and physical activity levels of medical 1 st year students. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 healthy medical students in age group of 18-20 years. RT for target stimulus that is, for the beep tone for measuring ART, and red circle for measuring VRT was determined using Inquisit 4.0 (Computer Software) in the laptop. The task was to press the spacebar as soon as the stimulus is presented. Five readings of each stimulus were taken, and their respective fastest RT's for each stimuli were recorded. Statistical analysis was done. Results: In both the sexes' RT to the auditory stimulus was significantly less (P < 0.001) as compared to the visual stimulus. Significant difference was found between RT of male and female medical students (P < 0.001) as well as between sedentary and regularly exercising healthy medical 1 st year students. Conclusion: The ART is faster than the VRT in medical students. Furthermore, male medical students have faster RTs as compared to female medical students for both auditory as well as visual stimuli. Regularly exercising medical students have faster RTs when compared with medical students with sedentary lifestyles.
  15,904 2,078 70
A review of drug isomerism and its significance
Naveen Chhabra, Madan L Aseri, Deepak Padmanabhan
January-June 2013, 3(1):16-18
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.112233  PMID:23776834
Isomerism finds its importance in the field of clinical pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics, as isomers differ in their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodyanmic properties. Drug isomerism has opened a new era of drug development. Currently, knowledge of isomerism has helped us in introducing safer and more effective drug alternatives of the newer as well as existing drugs. Many existing drugs have gone chiral switch i.e., switching from racemic mixture to one of its isomers. Cetrizine to levocetrizine is one of such examples, where effective and safer drug has been made available. In this article, we have attempted to review the basic concepts of stereochemistry and chirality and their significance in pharmacotherapeutics. Various pharmacological aspects such as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variations resulting out of chirality has been discussed in detail in this article.
  15,665 1,856 68
Prevalence of hypothyroidism in infertile women and evaluation of response of treatment for hypothyroidism on infertility
Indu Verma, Renuka Sood, Sunil Juneja, Satinder Kaur
January-June 2012, 2(1):17-19
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.96795  PMID:23776802
Context: Prevalence of hypothyroidism is 2-4% in women in the reproductive age group. Hypothyroidism can affect fertility due to anovulatory cycles, luteal phase defects, hyperprolactinemia, and sex hormone imbalance. Aims and Objectives: To study the prevalence of clinical/sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile women and the response of treatment for hypothyroidism on infertility. Materials and Methods: A total of 394 infertile women visiting the infertility clinic for the first time were investigated for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin (PRL). Infertile women with hypothyroidism alone or with associated hyperprolactinemia were given treatment for hypothyroidism with thyroxine 25-150 μg. Results: Of 394 infertile women, 23.9% were hypothyroid (TSH > 4.2 μIU/ml). After treatment for hypothyroidism, 76.6% of infertile women conceived within 6 weeks to 1 year. Infertile women with both hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia also responded to treatment and their PRL levels returned to normal. Conclusion: Measurement of TSH and PRL should be done at early stage of infertility check up rather than straight away going for more costly tests or invasive procedures. Simple, oral hypothyroidism treatment for 3 months to 1 year can be of great benefit to conceive in otherwise asymptomatic infertile women.
  13,250 1,624 35
Bioenhancers from mother nature and their applicability in modern medicine
Gurpreet Kaur Randhawa, Jagdev Singh Kullar, Rajkumar
January-June 2011, 1(1):5-10
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.81972  PMID:23776764
Concept of bioenhancers or biopotentiators was first time reported in 1929 by Bose. A bioenhancer is an agent capable of enhancing bioavailability and efficacy of a drug with which it is co-administered, without any pharmacological activity of its own at therapeutic dose used. Development and consequent isolation of these molecules, such as piperine and quercetin, is considered as scientific breakthrough. A fixed drug combination (Risorine) of rifampicin, isoniazid, and piperine is the result of this research. It contains almost 60% less dose of rifampicin because of its increased bioavailability and it also prevents resistance. This concept is mentioned as yogvahi in ayurveda and was used to increase the effect of medicines by increasing oral bioavailability, decreasing adverse effects and to circumvent parenteral routes of drug administration. More such useful and economically viable drug combinations can be developed by integrating knowledge of time tested ayurveda with modern methods of research. This review is an account of these bioenhancers, available from the natural resources.
  12,899 1,791 28
Painful cervical lymphadenopathy: An unusual presentation of chikungunya
Mukundraj S Keny, Ian A Pereira, Sunita B deSa, Edwin J Gomes
January-June 2014, 4(1):47-49
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.125695  PMID:24600579
Chikungunya is an arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquito that represents a major public health burden worldwide including India. The disease presents as sudden onset of high-grade fever, severe arthralgias, and rash. Here, we describe a case of a patient who presented with cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, and myalgia and later was diagnosed as chikungunya. Lymphadenopathy has been described before as a less common symptom of chikungunya. But this is probably, the first case of chikungunya with cervical lymphadenopathy as a presenting feature.
  14,192 411 1
Intradetrusor botulinum toxin type A in refractory overactive bladder: A potential future treatment
Rajiv Mahajan, Navyug Raj Singh
July-December 2011, 1(2):67-70
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91144  PMID:23776779
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Mental healthcare Act 2017: Need to wait and watch
Abhisek Mishra, Abhiruchi Galhotra
April-June 2018, 8(2):67-70
DOI:10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_328_17  PMID:29744316
Mental health is different from general health as in certain circumstances mentally ill people may not be in a position to make decisions on their own. Those who suffer rarely get access to appropriate medical treatment as their families try to hide their condition out of a sense of shame. Over 300 million people are estimated to suffer from depression, equivalent to 4.4% of the world's total population. According to a study conducted by the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, 1 in 40 and 1 in 20 people are suffering from the past and current episodes of depression in India. In spite of this big burden of mental health issues, unfortunately, it continues to be misunderstood in developing countries like India. The new Mental Healthcare Act 2017 rescinds/revoked the existing Mental Healthcare Act 1987 which had been widely criticized for not recognizing the rights of a mentally ill person.
  12,068 1,074 3
To compare the efficacy and safety of fixed dose combination of thiocolchicoside and aceclofenac versus chlorzoxazone, aceclofenac and paracetamol in patients with acute lower backache associated with muscle spasm
Sanjeev Kumar, Seema Rani, Ramchander Siwach, Prem Verma
July-December 2014, 4(2):101-105
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.136789  PMID:25143885
Background: The fixed dose combinations (FDCs) of muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol are commonly prescribed in the treatment of acute lower backache. Aim: The present study was undertaken with the aim of comparing the efficacy and safety of FDCs of thiocolchicoside and aceclofenac versus chlorzoxazone, aceclofenac and paracetamol in patients with acute lower backache associated with muscle spasm. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients between ages range from 18 and 55 years having low back pain of ≤7 days duration were randomly divided into two groups. Group A was prescribed thiocolchicoside (4 mg) + aceclofenac (100 mg) while Group B was prescribed chlorzoxazone (500 mg) + aceclofenac (100 mg) + paracetamol (325 mg) orally twice daily for 7 days. Severity of pain at rest and on movement was recorded using visual analogue scale. Muscle spasm was evaluated by hand-to-floor distance and Lasegue's maneuver. Readings were noted on day 1 (baseline), day 3 and day 7. Results: There was statistically significant reduction in severity of pain and muscle spasm on day 3 and day 7 in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in pain relief and muscle spasm among the treatment groups but clinically showed better improvement in the Group A. The adverse drug reactions occurring during study showed a statistically significant better safety profile in the Group A than Group B . Conclusion: These findings confirm that FDC of thiocolchicoside and aceclofenac is a preferred option for patients with lower backache pain associated with muscle spasm.
  11,579 1,240 8
Recent advances in antibacterial drugs
Jaswant Rai, Gurpreet Kaur Randhawa, Mandeep Kaur
January-June 2013, 3(1):3-10
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.112229  PMID:23776832
The incidence of antimicrobial resistance is on continued rise with a threat to return to the "pre-antibiotic" era. This has led to emergence of such bacterial infections which are essentially untreatable by the current armamentarium of available treatment options. Various efforts have been made to develop the newer antimicrobials with novel modes of action which can act against these multi-drug resistant strains. This review aims to focus on these newly available and investigational antibacterials approved after year 2000, their mechanism of actions/resistance, and spectrum of activity and their phases of clinical trials. Newer unexploited targets and strategies for the next generation of antimicrobial drugs for combating the drug resistance and emerging pathogens in the 21 st century have also been reviewed in the present article.
  11,339 1,460 23
Students awareness of learning styles and their perceptions to a mixed method approach for learning
Anumeha Bhagat, Rashmi Vyas, Tejinder Singh
August 2015, 5(4):58-65
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.162281  PMID:26380214
Background: Individualization of instructional method does not contribute significantly to learning outcomes although it is known that students have differing learning styles (LSs). Hence, in order to maximally enhance learning, one must try to use a mixed method approach. Hypothesis: Our hypothesis was that awareness of preferred LS and motivation to incorporate multiple learning strategies might enhance learning outcomes. Aim: Our aim was to determine the impact of awareness of LS among medical undergraduates and motivating students to use mixed methods of learning. Materials and Methods: Before awareness lecture, LS preferences were determined using Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire. Awareness of LS was assessed using a validated questionnaire. Through a lecture, students were oriented to various LSs, impact of LS on their performance, and benefit of using mixed method approach for learning. Subsequently, group discussions were organized. After 3 months, VARK preferences and awareness of LSs were reassessed. Student narratives were collected. Qualitative analysis of the data was done. Results: There was a significant increase in the number of students who were aware of LS. The number of participants showing a change in VARK scores for various modalities of learning was also significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Thus, awareness of LSs motivated students to adapt other learning strategies and use mixed methods for learning.
  11,167 1,125 12
Effect of preeclampsia on insulin sensitivity
Smita Sinha, Gobind Pratap Singh, Kapil Gupta, Satwant Kumar, Aekta Gupta
January-June 2014, 4(1):7-10
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.125670  PMID:24600570
Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate whether preeclampsia is associated with exacerbation of insulin resistance. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 7 months from November 2011 to May 2012, in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical college. A total of 14 pregnant women in the third trimester with preeclampsia were recruited for this study and 14 well-matched normotensive women in the third trimester were taken as control. 15 g, 50% dextrose load was given intravenously and blood sampling was carried out for glucose and insulin levels up to 3 h afterward. Minimal model analysis of glucose and insulin levels was performed to arrive at results. Results: No significant changes in mean age, body mass index, gestation, serum lipid and progesterone, cortisol and androgen concentrations were recognized. No significant difference was found between the glucose decay curves and between the glucose clearance rate K, in the two groups (preeclamptic vs. normotensive: 2.1 ± 0.2 vs. 2.2 ± 0.3; P = 0.48). Therefore, there was a small but prolonged decrease in the insulin response of women with preeclampsia compared with women in the normotensive group. Conclusion: Preeclampsia per se is not a risk factor for development of insulin resistance.
  10,614 1,510 2
Vaptans: A new option in the management of hyponatremia
Suruchi Aditya, Aditya Rattan
July-December 2012, 2(2):77-83
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.106347  PMID:23776817
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays an important role in water and sodium homeostasis. It acts via three receptor subtypes-V 1 a, V 1 b, and V 2 -distributed widely throughout the body. Vaptans are nonpeptide vasopressin receptor antagonists (VRA). By property of aquaresis, VRAs offer a novel therapy of water retention. Conivaptan is a V 1 a/V 2 nonselective VRA approved for euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia. Tolvaptan is the first oral VRA. Other potential uses of this new class of drugs include congestive heart failure (CHF), cirrhosis of liver, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, polycystic kidney disease, and so on. These novel drugs score over diuretics as they are not associated with electrolyte abnormalities. Though much remains to be elucidated before the VRAs are applied clinically, the future holds much promise.
  9,995 2,034 20
Rigor mortis in an unusual position: Forensic considerations
Deepak H D'Souza, S Harish, M Rajesh, J Kiran
July-December 2011, 1(2):120-122
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91160  PMID:23776792
We report a case in which the dead body was found with rigor mortis in an unusual position. The dead body was lying on its back with limbs raised, defying gravity. Direction of the salivary stains on the face was also defying the gravity. We opined that the scene of occurrence of crime is unlikely to be the final place where the dead body was found. The clues were revealing a homicidal offence and an attempt to destroy the evidence. The forensic use of 'rigor mortis in an unusual position' is in furthering the investigations, and the scientific confirmation of two facts - the scene of death (occurrence) is different from the scene of disposal of dead body, and time gap between the two places.
  11,587 362 -
Will the epidemic of metabolic syndrome raise the prevalence of antiplatelet drug resistance?
Richard Kones, Umme Rumana
July-December 2013, 3(2):75-76
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.117047  PMID:24083139
  2,374 9,194 -
Project-based faculty development: Indian perspectives
Tejinder Singh
August 2015, 5(4):1-2
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.162249  PMID:26380199
  2,747 8,802 -
Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: Potential role of genomics
Rajiv Mahajan, Kapil Gupta
September 2014, 4(3):1-1
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.140704  PMID:25298933
  2,178 9,269 -
Sleep paralysis, a medical condition with a diverse cultural interpretation
Esther Olunu, Ruth Kimo, Esther Olufunmbi Onigbinde, Mary-Amadeus Uduak Akpanobong, Inyene Ezekiel Enang, Mariam Osanakpo, Ifure Tom Monday, David Adeiza Otohinoyi, Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya
July-September 2018, 8(3):137-142
DOI:10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_19_18  PMID:30123741
Sleep paralysis (SP) is a state associated with the inability to move that occurs when an individual is about sleeping or just waking. It could occur in healthy individuals as isolated SP. It has also been linked with other underlying psychiatry, familial, and sleep disorders. Statistics show that 8% of the general population suffers from SP. Although this value has been described inaccurately, there is no standard definition or etiology to diagnose SP. There are several speculations describing SP in the current literature. These descriptions can be viewed as either cultural-based or medical-based. The disparity among cultural or ethnic groups and medical professionals in identifying SP has led to the various approaches to managing the condition. This review aims to medically describe SP and how it is interpreted and managed among various cultural groups.
  10,320 813 3
Serum nitric oxide status in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Sikkim
Amrita Ghosh, Mingma L Sherpa, Yazum Bhutia, Ranabir Pal, Sanjay Dahal
January-June 2011, 1(1):31-35
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.81977  PMID:23776769
Background: Serum nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a fundamental signal associated with the endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Aims: To compare serum nitric oxide level among type 2 diabetic patients along with other biochemical parameters and to compare it with that of normal population in Sikkim. Settings and Design: This prospective study was carried out in the Biochemistry Department in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Sikkim on 50 type 2 diabetics compared to 100 non-diabetics. Materials and Methods: The un-hemolyzed blood sample was collected for estimation of biochemical parameters. Griess reaction was used for indirect assay of stable decomposition products in serum (serum nitrite and nitrate levels) as an index of NO generation. The comparison of different parameters between cases and control was done by using Student's t-test. Results: There was significant difference when age- and sex-matched cases and controls were compared in regard to waist circumference and body mass index. The values of fasting and postprandial serum glucose, and lipid profile between study group and control group differed significantly. The mean serum level of NO in the study and control group was 43.83 ± 11.3 μmoles/L and 58.85 ± 12.8 μmoles/L respectively, and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: To sum up, serum NO was observed significantly low in diabetic participants as compared to control, along with difference in other biochemical parameters.
  9,934 1,133 20
Teaching communications skills to medical students: Introducing the fine art of medical practice
Anjali Choudhary, Vineeta Gupta
August 2015, 5(4):41-44
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.162273  PMID:26380210
Introduction: Like many other people based professions, communications skills are essential to medical practice also. Traditional medical teaching in India does not address communication skills which are most essential in dealing with patients. Communication skills can be taught to medical students to increase clinical competence. Objective: To teach basic communication and counseling skills to fourth-year undergraduate students to increase their clinical competence. Methodology: A total of 48, fourth-year MBBS students participated in the study. They were given training in basic communication and counseling skills and taught the patient interview technique according to Calgary-Cambridge guide format. Improvement in communication was assessed by change in pre- and post-training multiple choice questions, clinical patient examination, and Standardized Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (SPSQ) scores. Results and Analysis : About 88% of the students in the sample were convinced of the importance of learning communication skills for effective practice. Almost 90% students were communicating better after training, as tested by improved SPSQ. As judged by Communication Skill Attitude Scale, student's positive attitude toward learning communication skill indicated that there is a necessity of communication skill training during undergraduate years. Conclusion: The ability to communicate effectively is a core competency for medical practitioners. Inculcating habits of good communications skill during formative years will help the medical students and future practitioners. Regular courses on effective communication should be included in the medical school curriculum.
  8,644 1,240 27
Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: A treatment paradigm based on our hospital experience
Sunil Kumar Juneja, Shweta Gupta, Satpal Singh Virk, Pooja Tandon, Vidushi Bindal
July-December 2013, 3(2):122-125
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.117090  PMID:24083148
Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare event in pregnancy, occurring in approximately 3 in 10 000 pregnancies. The spectrum of AP in pregnancy ranges from mild pancreatitis to serious pancreatitis associated with necrosis, abscesses, pseudocysts, and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. As in any other disease associated with pregnancy, AP is associated with greater concerns as it deals with two lives rather than just one as in the nonpregnant population. AP is most often associated with gall stone disease or hypertriglyceridemia. Material and Methods: We present 2 years of experience during which we had eight patients of AP. Results: Of the eight patients, three underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and five were treated conservatively. One had multiple cysts in the abdomen which were drained. All the patients delivered at term. Prophylactic tocolysis was given for 48-72 h to only those patients who had laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All the patients recovered completely. There was no maternal or fetal mortality. Conclusion: When properly managed AP in pregnancy does not carry a dismal prognosis as in the past.
  8,603 875 11
Learning theories: The basics to learn in medical education
Dinesh K Badyal, Tejinder Singh
2017, 7(5):1-3
DOI:10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_385_17  PMID:29344448
  6,885 2,491 13