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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 45-49

Short-term acute effects of gutkha chewing on heart rate variability among young adults: A cross-sectional study

1 Department of Physiology, C.M. Medical College and Hospital, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, K. M. C., Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Paediatric Dentistry, MAHSA University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
4 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Rungta College of Dental Sciences and Research, Bhilai, Chhattisgarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Navin A Patil
Department of Pharmacology, K. M. C., Manipal University, Manipal, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2229-516X.174008

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Background and Objectives: An increase in the consumption of smokeless tobacco has been noticed among high school, college students, and adults. Despite the antiquity and popularity of chewing tobacco in India, its effects have not been investigated systematically in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate acute effects of gutkha chewing on heart rate variability (HRV) among healthy young adults. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 young adult males were included in the study. Each individual was asked to chew tobacco and subjected to HRV analysis. HRV analysis using short-term electrocardiogram recording was used to measure HRV parameters before gutkha chewing and at 5, 15, and 30 min after chewing tobacco. One-way analysis of variance and paired t-test was used to assess changes over time. Results: There was a significant increase in heart rate (HR) during tobacco chewing. Mean HR at baseline measured 73.0 ± 6.2 bpm. There was a rise in mean HR to 83.7 ± 9.1 bpm at 5 min during tobacco chewing and gradual reduction to baseline observed after 15 min followed by no significant change till 30 min. The normalized low-frequency power and LF/high-frequency (HF) power ratio were elevated after 5 min; however, normalized HF power was reduced after 5 min tobacco chewing. Conclusion: Gutkha is closely associated with traditional cardiovascular risk factors as detected by a transient enhancing sympathetic activity during tobacco chewing in the form of increased HRV parameters or an imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic neural activity among healthy young adults.

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