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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 36-40

Hepatitis B virus seroprevalence and its correlation with CD4 cells and liver enzymes among human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals at a tertiary care hospital in North-West India

1 Department of Microbiology, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, SMS Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Correspondence Address:
Saroj Hooja
A-29, Lal Bahadur Nagar, Opposite Hotel Clarks Amer, Jaipur - 302 017, Rajasthan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2229-516X.149235

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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are global health concerns. Due to shared routes of transmission, co-infection is common. Their co-existence can cause severe liver complications and immunological impairment in infected individuals. Aim: To find the prevalence of HBV co-infection in HIV patients and to assess the pattern of liver enzymes and CD4 T-cell counts in HIV monoinfected and HIV/HBV co-infected patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 342 consecutive confirmed HIV positive treatment naοve patients were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Clinical staging was done according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention classification guidelines. Liver function tests were performed by an autoanalyser. CD4 T-cells were estimated by FACS Calibur. Results: Hepatitis B virus co-infection was detected in 8.7% of HIV positive patients as compared to 1.42% in the HIV negative control group (P < 0.05). Majority of the HIV monoinfected and co-infected patients were below 38 years. HBsAg positivity was higher in males (9.4%) and the route of transmission was heterosexual. Categorical data revealed significantly higher proportion of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the co-infected patients compared to the monoinfected patients (P < 0.05). The HIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly lower CD4 T-cell counts (P = 0.03) and significantly higher AST, alkaline phosphatase and serum bilirubin values (P = 0.023, P = 0.029, P = 0.009 respectively) than the monoinfected group. Males had 1.33 times higher risk than females for co-infection (odds ratio = 1.33; 95% confidence interval 0.57-3.10). Conclusion: The prevalence of co-infection was high. Raised levels of liver enzymes and lowered CD4 counts were seen in co-infected patients. These findings underscore the importance of HBV screening of all HIV positive individuals before initiating antiretroviral treatment.

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