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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 2  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 58-62

Antimicrobial potential of Dialium guineense (Wild.) stem bark on some clinical isolates in Nigeria

1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria
2 Department of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
3 Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
F A Olajubu
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2229-516X.96811

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Context : The persistent increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms has led to the development of more potent but also more expensive antibiotics. In most developing countries of the world these antibiotics are not readily affordable, thus making compliance difficult. This calls for research into alternative sources of antimicrobials. Dialium guineense is a shrub of the family Leguminosae. Its stem bark is used for the treatment of cough, toothache, and bronchitis. Aims : Despite the acclaimed efficacy of D guineense, there is no scientific evidence in its support. This work was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of D guineense in vitro against some clinical isolates. Materials and Methods : D guineense stem bark was collected and 50 gm of air-dried and powdered stem bark of the plant was soaked for 72 hours in 1 l of each of the six solvents used in this study. Each mixture was refluxed, agitated at 200 rpm for 1 hour, filtered using Whatman No. 1 filter paper and, finally, freeze dried. The extracts were then tested for antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. Results : The highest percentage yield of 23.2% was obtained with ethanol. Phytochemical screening showed that D guineense contains anthraquinone, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts revealed a broad spectrum of activity, with Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureusa showing the greatest zones of inhibition (18.0 mm). Only Candida albicans among the fungi tested was inhibited by the extract. The greatest zone of inhibition among the fractions was 16.0 mm. D guineense exhibited bactericidal activity at the 7th and 9th hours against Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. aureus 25923 while the 10th hour against S. typhi and C. albicans. The greatest activity was noted against S pneumoniae, where there was reduced viable cell count after 6 hours of exposure. Conclusion : Stem bark extract of D guineense (Wild.) has the potential to be developed into an antimicrobial agent

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