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   2011| July-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since December 26, 2011

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Intradetrusor botulinum toxin type A in refractory overactive bladder: A potential future treatment
Rajiv Mahajan, Navyug Raj Singh
July-December 2011, 1(2):67-70
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91144  PMID:23776779
  2,922 9,740 -
Rigor mortis in an unusual position: Forensic considerations
Deepak H D'Souza, S Harish, M Rajesh, J Kiran
July-December 2011, 1(2):120-122
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91160  PMID:23776792
We report a case in which the dead body was found with rigor mortis in an unusual position. The dead body was lying on its back with limbs raised, defying gravity. Direction of the salivary stains on the face was also defying the gravity. We opined that the scene of occurrence of crime is unlikely to be the final place where the dead body was found. The clues were revealing a homicidal offence and an attempt to destroy the evidence. The forensic use of 'rigor mortis in an unusual position' is in furthering the investigations, and the scientific confirmation of two facts - the scene of death (occurrence) is different from the scene of disposal of dead body, and time gap between the two places.
  9,882 358 -
Study of central nervous system depressant and behavioral activity of an ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera (Agadha) in different animal models
Uma A Bhosale, Radha Yegnanarayan, Prachi D Pophale, Mandar R Zambare, Rahul S Somani
July-December 2011, 1(2):104-108
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91154  PMID:23776787
Background: Achyranthes aspera Linn., an indigenous herb, has been reported to have antifertility, antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic, diuretic, cardiotonic, analgesic anti-inflammatory, hypnotic, antifungal, antibacterial, and central antinociceptive activities. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate depressant effects on central nervous system (CNS) and behavioral effects of ethanol extract of A. aspera (EEAA) and to find the phytochemical responsible for these activities. Materials and Methods: The pharmacological assays used to study CNS depressant effect in albino mice were rota rod and actophotometer performance test. Effects on behavioral activity were studied using open field test. The extract was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) at a dose of 400 mg/kg. Diazepam (2 mg/kg body weight i.p.) was used as standard. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed presence of triterpenoids, saponins, alkaloids (betaine, achyranthine), and steroids as major constituents. The result of this study reflected that EEAA (400 mg/kg i.p.) decreased locomotor activity, produced muscle relaxation, and showed anxiolytic activity. Conclusions: EEAA exhibit CNS depressant and significant anxiolytic activity comparable to diazepam.
  6,330 685 13
Assessment of the level of trace element zinc in seminal plasma of males and evaluation of its role in male infertility
Mohammad Shoaib Khan, Safeer Zaman, Mohammad Sajjad, Mohammad Shoaib, Ghulam Gilani
July-December 2011, 1(2):93-96
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91152  PMID:23776785
Background: Male infertility is a serious problem all over the world. Nutritional deficiency of trace element Zinc (Zn) may play a role in male infertility as Zn plays an important role not only in normal testicular development, but also in spermatogenesis and sperm motility. Deficiency of Zn is associated with hypogonadism and insufficient development of secondary sex characteristics. Objective: The present study was designed to analyze the level of seminal Zn among different groups of infertile patients and to correlate it with sperm concentration, active, sluggish and immotile fractions of seminal parameters, with an objective to establish the role of Zn in male infertility. Setting and Design: The present study was carried out in five- years period from 2004 to 2009. It was a descriptive analytical study with non probability sampling. Materials and Methods: Semen examination of the patients was carried out according to the standardized method of the World Health Organization. Semen Zn was estimated by color 5 Br. PAPS method. Statistical Analysis: All statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS (Version 14.0 for windows) software, by applying student's t-test. Results: The result showed that seminal Zn was 702.92±10.60, 598.48±12.95, 617.54±9.55, 542.29±22.75, 710.36±7.87, 712.06±7.96, 789.36±21.33, and 762.06±8.99 mg/dl in azoospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic, oligoasthenozoospermic, teratozoospermic, normozoospermic, polyzoospermic, and proven fathers group, respectively. Conclusions: Decreased concentration of seminal Zn do affect the sperm count, while increased level of seminal plasma Zn causes decreased sperm motility; so, it is suggested that administration of Zn should be very carefully monitored in such patients having low sperm count but normal sperm motility, as adequate seminal Zn is required for normal sperm function.
  4,187 548 18
Clinico-epidemiological profile and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococcal septicemia from a tertiary care hospital in east Delhi
Sarika Jain, Ashwani Kumar, Bineeta Kashyap, Iqbal R Kaur
July-December 2011, 1(2):80-83
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91149  PMID:23776782
Background: Emergence of high-level aminoglycoside and glycopeptide resistance has significantly contributed to the mortality, particularly in serious enterococcal infections. Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of high-level gentamicin resistance (HLGR), high-level streptomycin resistance (HLSR) and vancomycin resistance in enterococcal isolates recovered from patients with bacteremia. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 blood culture isolates of enterococci were recovered from septicemic patients. Routine antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed and screening for ampilcillin, high-level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR) and high-level vancomycin resistance was done by agar screen method. Results: Out of 110 isolates, Enterococcus faecium accounted for 53% of these isolates, followed by Enterococcus fecalis (33%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (8%), Enterococcus raffinosus (4%) and Enterococcus dispar (2%). Resistance to ampicillin, HLGR, HLSR and HLAR was detected in 58%, 62%, 58% and 54% of the isolates, respectively. No isolate was resistant to vancomycin. Conclusion: This study illustrates the high prevalence of HLAR in enterococci from patients with septicemia in our region, which emphasizes the need to predict synergy between beta-lactams and aminoglycosides for management of enterococcal infections.
  3,975 643 9
Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: Potential pathophysiological role and clinical implications
Sharmila J Dudani, Shivani Kalhan, Sonia P Sharma
July-December 2011, 1(2):71-74
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91146  PMID:23776780
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is thought to arise due to an interplay of genetic and environmental risk factors. Vitamin D, besides maintaining bone health and calcium metabolism, is thought to play an immunomodulatory role in the central nervous system. Studies have shown that patients with the highest level of Vitamin D (99-152 nmol/l) had a significantly lower risk of MS than the subgroup with the lowest levels (15-63 nmol/l). Furthermore, populations having a high oral intake of vitamin D had a decreased risk of MS. Hypovitaminosis D is one of the environmental risk factors for MS based on numerous physiological, experimental and epidemiologic data, which can be corrected to provide an effective therapeutic option for this debilitating disease.
  2,952 1,502 5
Smoking-induced satellite associations in a rural population of south India: An in vitro study
AN Uma, R Pajanivel, S Raj, Lokeshmaran
July-December 2011, 1(2):75-79
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91148  PMID:23776781
Background: Genotoxic carcinogens in cigarette smoke interact with DNA, causing cytotoxicity. Cytogenetic damage therefore seems to be an excellent biomarker for determining the effect of exposure to chromosome-damaging agents in cigarette smoke. Purpose: To study the utility of measurement of frequency of satellite associations (SA) as a biomarker for chromosomal damage using cytogenetic assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers drawn from a rural population of South India. Smokers were divided into three groups of ten each based on their smoking index (SI) (group I: SI < 150, group II: SI 150-300, and group III: SI > 300) and the frequency of SAs was studied. Results: The frequency of SAs was significantly greater in smokers than in nonsmokers and the frequency of SAs among the smokers was also seen to increase with increase in SI. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the genotoxic effect of cigarette smoke on chromosomes increases with smoking intensity. These findings can be used to support smoking cessation interventions.
  2,839 1,173 2
Cancer-behavior-coping in women with breast cancer: Effect of a cancer self-management program
Siew Yim Loh, KF Quek
July-December 2011, 1(2):84-88
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91150  PMID:23776783
Objective: The Cancer Behavior Inventory (CBI), a measure of self-efficacy for coping with cancer, was used to examine the feasibility and impact of a self-management program for women with breast cancer. This controlled clinical trial was conducted on newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, using a time series, block design. Sixty-nine patients were allocated to receive four weekly sessions of the self-management training program, while 78 patients were allocated to the control (usual-care) group. Results: A significant difference was found between the means of the experimental and the control group at post-test (T2; P=.01) and at follow-up (T3; P=.02). The multivariate analyses of the three repeated measures showed significant differences (P=.001; partial eta-squared = 0.092). Pair-wise comparison shows that the differences were significant between baseline (T1) measure and follow-up (T3) measure (P=.01), and between post-test (T2) and follow-up (T3) (P=.03). Conclusion: For women undergoing intervention, the cancer-specific self-efficacy as measured by the cancer-behavior-coping inventory showed improvement over time. The result demonstrated that the self-management program to improve self-care correlates significantly with coping behavior in cancer. A larger and longer study of this efficacy-enhancing intervention is warranted.
  3,336 670 6
Unique presentation of maxillary artery, lingual nerve, and inferior alveolar nerve complex
SR Daimi, AU Siddiqui, VR Vyas, Siraj Sheikh
July-December 2011, 1(2):125-126
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91163  PMID:23776794
Knowledge of variations in arteries and nerves of infratemporal fossa may be helpful in radical neck dissection and in dental procedures to avoid the complications. We present an unusual case in which maxillary artery was found deep (medial) to lateral pterygoid muscle. Lingual nerve originated from two roots: anterior and posterior. Anterior root originated from common trunk and the posterior root directly from mandibular nerve. Inferior alveolar nerve was a continuation of the common trunk. Branches of mandibular nerve formed a loop through which passed the second part of maxillary artery. The clinical significance of the present variations has been discussed.
  3,191 363 1
Detection of cryptococcosis in peripheral blood smear: A case report
Bhavna Nayal, Veena , S Niveditha, M Chethan
July-December 2011, 1(2):116-117
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91158  PMID:23776790
Disseminated cryptococcosis is usually detected by cytological examination of fluids and histopathological examination of tissues and confirmed by fungal cultures. Here we report a case of unusual presence of cryptococcal organism engulfed by neutrophils and monocytes in the peripheral smear.
  3,114 287 1
Experimental model proposed to deduce pharmacological evidence of the beta-cell neogenesis activity of Argyrolobium roseum vis-a-vis an evaluation of its hypoglycemic activity
OP Gupta, Pavan Malhotra, Surbhi Kudyar, Aneeta Singh, Geetika Gupta
July-December 2011, 1(2):97-103
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91153  PMID:23776786
Background: Argyrolobium roseum is described in texts for its botanical aspects with no mention of its therapeutic uses. Recently, a solvent fraction of this plant has been reported to possess insulin secretagogue activity. Objective: Primary objective of the study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of different fractions of Argyrolobium roseum plant. Secondary objective was to devise a model for detecting its beta-cell neogenesis activity. Materials and Methods: Alcoholic fraction (AR) was studied in fasting, glucose-loaded and streptozotocin (STZ)-treated hyperglycemic rats. For deducing beta-cell neogenesis activity, a sub-lethal dose of STZ, causing delayed death in the animals, was administered. Results: AR in a dose of 200 mg/kg showed hypoglycemic activity in fasting and STZ-treated rats. With sub-lethal dose of STZ, recovery from hyperglycemia was seen. Conclusion: AR of Argyrolobium roseum possesses hypoglycemic and a possible beta-cell neogenesis activity. Further studies are required to confirm its beta-cell neogenesis potential by cytological methods and to establish its role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
  3,004 355 -
Absence of upper trunk of the brachial plexus
Ali H Adam, MA Mohammed Ammar, Abbas Grebballa, Sahar Rizig
July-December 2011, 1(2):123-124
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91161  PMID:23776793
The brachial plexus is a complicated plexus supplying the upper limb. The brachial plexus is of great practical importance to the surgeon. It is encountered during operations upon the root of the neck, and hence it is in danger. Variations in the formation of the brachial plexus are common; and knowledge of the variation of the brachial plexus may be useful for surgeons, for improved guidance during supraclavicular block procedures, and for surgical approaches for brachial plexus. Here we report a case in which the superior trunk of the brachial plexus was found to be absent on the right side during a study on the cadaver-neck specimens in the Department of Anatomy.
  2,826 319 2
Interleukin-18 can predict pre-clinical atherosclerosis and poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Zhian M Ibrahim Dezayee
July-December 2011, 1(2):109-112
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91155  PMID:23776788
Background: Contradictory reports about the role of cytokines, particularly interleukins (IL) in atherosclerosis are found in the literature. Objectives: This study was aimed to investigate the association between the levels of cytokines notably IL-4, IL-12, IL-18 and, the atherogenicity and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Seventy five patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (25 males and 50 females) attending diabetic clinic during 1st August 2008 to 30th December 2009 as well as seventy healthy subjects (38 males and 32 female) were enrolled in the study. Fasting serum lipid profile and IL-4, IL-12 and IL-18 levels were determined. Results: The serum lipid profile of diabetic patients was significantly different from healthy subjects, favoring atherogenicity. IL 4, 12, and 18 were significantly higher in diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. Significant association of high serum IL-18 with poor glycemic control (P < 0.001) assessed by HbA1c, long duration of diabetes and atherogenic index were observed. Conclusions: IL-18 can serve as a predictor for pre-clinical atherosclerosis and poor glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  2,676 411 5
Morphological and morphometric parameters of human ovaries from embryonic to menopausal age
V Usha Rani, V Subhadra Devi
July-December 2011, 1(2):89-92
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91151  PMID:23776784
Background: There is a relationship between the intrauterine development, pubertal and adulthood variations, anomalies, and pathology of ovaries. But the entire development spectrum of the ovaries from fetal to menopausal age has not been examined among Indian females. Objectives: This study was conducted with an objective to establish the morphological and morphometric development characteristics of ovaries in local population as a proxy for Indians. Materials and Methods: Thirty ovaries from prenatal embryos and fetuses aged 6 weeks to 40 weeks and 50 postnatal ovaries up to 55 years of age were studied for morphology and morphometry, by doing dissection. Results: Oval shape was predominant in prenatal ovaries (66.68%), followed by rod (20%), almond, and "S" shapes (6.66% each). Among the postnatal ovaries while almond shape accounted for 72%, the incidence of oval shape was 28%. There was a significant correlation between gestational age and weight of the ovaries both in prenatal (r = 0.56) and postnatal (r = 0.696) specimens studied. Conclusion: Variations in the morphological and morphometric development characteristics of ovaries are common. The findings of this study form an initial database for the local population which may be improved in the subsequent studies.
  2,760 314 -
An anomalous variation in the division pattern of the common peroneal nerve
Anterpreet K Arora, Poonam Verma, Sudhir Abrol
July-December 2011, 1(2):118-119
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91159  PMID:23776791
The muscles of the leg are partitioned into three compartments (anterior, lateral, and posterior) by two intermuscular septa that have separate innervations. Anterior compartment is innervated by the deep peroneal nerve and lateral compartment is innervated by the superficial peroneal nerve. Common peroneal nerve divides into superficial and deep peroneal nerve at the neck of fibula. An unusual finding in the dividing pattern of the common peroneal nerve in the male cadaver on the left side was observed. This finding is of academic interest and clinical significance to the orthopedician operating on the proximal fibula for nerve decompression, high tibial osteotomy, and nerve transfer operations.
  2,420 365 3
Colesevelam hydrochloride: A novel agent in patients with type 2 diabetes
Kavita Sekhri, Lekha Saha
July-December 2011, 1(2):113-115
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91157  PMID:23776789
Hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are both risk factors for the development of various complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Colesevelam hydrochloride is a novel agent that can improve both hypercholesterolemia and hyperglycemia in such patients. It is an orally administered bile acid sequestrant with high capacity for binding bile acids. This drug can offer potential new diabetes treatment along with other drugs.
  1,978 337 2
Study of metallo-β-lactamase production in nosocomial nil fermenter gram-negative bacterial isolates from clinical samples in a tertiary hospital
Vinita Rawat
July-December 2011, 1(2):129-130
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91166  PMID:23776797
  2,032 277 -
Global climate change and issues related to women's health: A generalised debate
Harshal T Pandve
July-December 2011, 1(2):128-129
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91165  PMID:23776796
  1,613 263 -
Eyeing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The noninvasive way
Dilip Gude
July-December 2011, 1(2):127-128
DOI:10.4103/2229-516X.91164  PMID:23776795
  1,487 250 -