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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 156-163

Increasing prevalence of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, carbapenemase, and NDM-1 in patients from a rural community with community acquired infections: A 3-year study


1 Department of Microbiology, SGT Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana, India
2 Division of Biochemistry, National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi, India
3 Division of Microbiology, National Centre for Disease Control, Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Debasish Chattopadhya
Department of Microbiology, SGT Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_360_19

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Background: Increasing prevalence of community-acquired infections (CAIs) due to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), especially the Cefotaxime-Munich (CTX-M) type, carbapenemase, and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM), has been reported globally posing a serious public health threat that has complicated treatment strategies for Gram-negative bacterial infections. While most of the reports in this regard are based on hospitalized patients from the urban community, there is a paucity of data in a rural community presenting with CAIs. Materials and Methods: A total of 1275 strains of E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated over a period of 3 years from patients with CAIs were subjected to the detection of ESBL by double-disc synergy test; carbapenemase by modified Hodge test; metallo-β-lactamase by MIC test strip metallo-β-lactamase (MBL); and blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaNDMgenes by polymerase chain reaction. Results: Among 1275 E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated during the study period, 773 (60.6%), 102 (8%), and 28 (2.2%) isolates were detected as ESBL, carbapenemase and MBL producers, respectively. Of the 773 ESBL producers, 635 (82.1%) were found to harbor blaCTX-M genes, and of the 102 carbapenemase producers, 12 (11.8%) were found to harbor blaNDMgenes. Gene sequencing of all the 12 NDM-positive isolates revealed blaNDM-1 genes. Antibiotic resistance pattern of the ESBL-positive isolates revealed a high degree of co-resistance to noncephalosporin antibiotics such as amoxyclav, co-trimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and fluoroquinolones. Conclusion: The present study showed the increasing the prevalence of ESBL including CTX-M variety, carbapenemase production by E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates, and spread of NDM-1 in the patients from the rural community of North India.


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