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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 55-57

Blood pressure deviation from the golden ratio φ and all-cause mortality: A pythagorean view of the arterial pulse


1 First Department of Cardiology, Biomedical Engineering Unit, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
2 First Department of Cardiology, Biomedical Engineering Unit; Third Department of Cardiology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
3 Eginition Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
4 Department of History of Medicine and Medical Deontology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete, Greece
5 Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece

Correspondence Address:
Assoc. Prof. Theodore G Papaioannou
First Department of Cardiology, Biomedical Engineering Unit, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Vas. Sophias 114, Athens 115 28
Greece
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_103_18

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Introduction: There is one mathematical element with strong historical and philosophical background that exhibits remarkable properties and applications; the golden ratio (phi). Mathematically, the golden ratio equals approximately 1.61803. A rather provocative geometrical analysis of the arterial pulse according to the golden ratio was recently described, and herein, we aim to set out the hypothesis that individuals with blood pressure (BP) values that follow the golden ratio may have different prognosis than those whose BPs deviate from the divine proportions. Materials and Methods: We used published data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 1999–2010. Results: We found that the deviation of the BP values from the golden ratio is independently associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions: This observation stimulates further research of the potential utility of the golden ratio of BP values on the diagnosis and prediction of BP-related abnormalities and risk.


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