Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  Users Online: 19 Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size  

 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 169-173  

Oral health-related quality of life among patients after complete denture rehabilitation: A 12-month follow-up study


1 Department of Prosthodontics, Manav Rachna Dental College, Faridabad, Haryana, India
2 Department of Prosthodontics, Manav Rachna Dental College and Hospital, Faridabad, Haryana, India
3 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Manav Rachna Dental College and Hospital, Faridabad, Haryana, India

Date of Submission26-Feb-2018
Date of Acceptance15-May-2018
Date of Web Publication27-Jul-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Meena Jain
205, Bharti Apartments, Sector 21C, Faridabad, Haryana
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_171_18

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Introduction: Complete edentulism is an eventual oral health outcome and results from the combined pathology of dental caries, periodontal disease, or faulty method of rehabilitation due to reduced cost. Complete edentulism has a significant concern and leads to reduced quality of life (QoL) along with impact on general health. However, it has been observed that due to wider and better oral health services globally, edentulism rate is decreasing every decade. Edentulism is directly related to masticatory and nutritional problems, and some authors regard it as a good mortality indicator. Methodology: The sample population consisted of 100 individuals comprising 63 males and 37 females who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI) was administered by a single investigator at baseline (preinsertion) and also 6 and 12 months postdenture insertion. Sociodemographic data, including age and gender, were also collected. Results: It was observed that the overall oral health-related QoL (OHRQoL) scores of the sample improved significantly at 6 and 12 months postinsertion (P < 0.001) when compared to baseline scores. When GOHAI scores were compared individually for males and females (pre- and post-insertion), it was observed that there was statistically significant improvement in OHRQoL (male – pre = 25.02 ± 1.34 and post-12 months = 8.84 ± 1.26, P < 0.001, female – pre = 25.19 ± 0.88 and post-12 months = 9.05 ± 1.20, P < 0.001) postinsertion of denture in both the groups. Conclusion: OHRQoL in patients improved after complete denture rehabilitation. There was an upward shift in score for each item in GOHAI from preinsertion to 6 and 12 months postinsertion of dentures, reflecting improvement in OHRQoL of the sample.

Keywords: Dental prosthesis, geriatric dentistry, oral health, special care


How to cite this article:
Kaushik K, Dhawan P, Tandan P, Jain M. Oral health-related quality of life among patients after complete denture rehabilitation: A 12-month follow-up study. Int J App Basic Med Res 2018;8:169-73

How to cite this URL:
Kaushik K, Dhawan P, Tandan P, Jain M. Oral health-related quality of life among patients after complete denture rehabilitation: A 12-month follow-up study. Int J App Basic Med Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2020 May 31];8:169-73. Available from: http://www.ijabmr.org/text.asp?2018/8/3/169/237712




   Introduction Top


Old age is an unavoidable biological phenomenon. A substantial increase in lifespan is a result of better and advanced medical care, efficient public health actions, and improved social conditions.[1],[2]

According to the WHO, the number of people aged 65 years or older is estimated to grow from 524 million in 2010 to 1.5 billion by 2050.[3] However, such a trend is also accompanied by new disease patterns in the form of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) along with their huge social and economic cost.[3],[4],[5] Global burden of oral disease is one of the most common NCDs. Their impact is huge in terms of pain, suffering, impairment of functions, disability, and ultimately reduced quality of life (QoL).

Complete edentulism is an eventual oral health outcome and results from the combined pathology of dental caries, periodontal disease, or faulty method of rehabilitation due to reduced cost. Edentulism increases by 4% per 10 years in young adults, and it is >10% per decade in individuals aged >70 years. However, it has been observed that due to wider and better oral health services globally, edentulism rate is decreasing every decade.[6],[7] Edentulism is directly related to masticatory and nutritional problems, and some authors regard it as a good mortality indicator.[8] Complete edentulism has a significant concern and leads to reduced QoL along with impact on general health (lower intake of fruit and vegetables and low nutrient diet).[9],[10] Overwhelming evidence shows the negative effect of edentulism on oral health-related QoL (OHRQoL) in the form of functional, psychological, and social impairment, thus affecting day-to-day life. Elderly with loss of teeth have low self-esteem, decline in psychosocial well-being, low participation in social activities, and thus suffer isolation.[5],[10],[11],[12],[13]

OHRQoL is a multidimensional complex of interrelated domains and has been regarded as health priority.[14] OHRQoL has implications for dental clinical practice and can play a vital role in clinical decision-making and complement to clinical outcomes. Assessment of OHRQoL allows shift from traditional medical/dental criteria to assessment that focus on person's social and environmental factors.[15]

Oral rehabilitation had been associated with a positive effect on OHRQoL.[16] Monitoring changes in response to treatment is one of the major uses of QoL measure in clinical practice.[17] Cohen and Jago have been credited with the introduction of the term “sociodental indicators,” and gradually, there was a rise of tools for the assessment of OHRQoL in multiple settings and populations.[18] GOHAI is a self-reported oral health assessment index used in the elderly population.[19] It measures patient-centered definition of health which diverges from disease-centered epidemiological measures of health. GOHAI was initially developed by Atchinson and Dolan in 1990, which was further used in North America in the geriatric population. GOHAI is stable, widely used, and validated in multiple languages[20],[21],[22],[23] including Hindi.[24],[25]

Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess and compare the effect of complete denture insertion on OHRQoL at three points of time, i.e., preinsertion and 6 and 12 months postinsertion using a prevalidated Hindi GOHAI questionnaire.


   Methodology Top


The present longitudinal follow-up study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from May 2016 to August 2017. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Review Board before the commencement of the study, and informed consent was taken from all eligible participants. A nonprobability sampling method was used. All patients reporting to the Outpatient Department of Prosthodontics during the period of May–July 2016 were screened for eligibility criteria. Initially, 128 patients were eligible for the study, but the final sample comprised a total of 100 participants (loss due to incomplete treatment, not willing to participate in 12-month follow-up, etc.). Patients were excluded if they had any systemic disease which could affect the treatment outcome, psychological disorders, temporomandibular joint disorder, partial dentulous condition, old denture wearer, and single complete denture.

The complete denture fabrication was performed using conventional techniques although minor case-based modifications in the technique and materials were done. It was made sure that all the dentures were processed in the same laboratory and using compression molding technique with standard laboratory procedures.

OHRQoL was assessed using the Hindi version of geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI)[24] It includes a total of 12 items which assessed the dimensions of physical functions, psychosocial functions, and pain or discomfort. As 12th item, assess sensitivity of teeth, it was considered irrelevant and thus excluded from the instrument, and finally, 11-item GOHAI was used.[11],[26] GOHAI was administered by a single investigator on the six-point Likert scale with options, namely “always – 5,” “very often – 4,” “often – 3,” “sometimes – 2,” “seldom – 1,” and “never – 0.” Thus, the scores ranged from 0 to 55. The scores were reversed for three items, viz., item 3: swallow comfortably; item 5: eat anything without feeling discomfort; and item 7: happy with the looks. In the current study, a lower score was associated with a more positive oral health.

GOHAI was administered by a single investigator at baseline (preinsertion) and also 6 months and 12 months postdenture insertion. Sociodemographic data, including age and gender, were collected.

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 (Statistical Package for social sciences, IBM Corporation). Pre- and post-insertion results were compared and analyzed using paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA.


   Results Top


The sample population consisted of 100 individuals comprising 63 males and 37 females. Mean age of the sample was 62.5 ± 8.8 (minimum = 40, maximum = 85) years in which 45 were <60 years of age and 55 were >60 years of age.

A one-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to compare the effect of complete denture insertion on OHRQoL (using GOHAI) in edentulous patients at preinsertion and 6 and 12 months postinsertion [Table 1].
Table 1: Descriptive statistics of the general oral health assessment index score at preinsertion and 6 months and 12 months postinsertion of the denture (n+100)

Click here to view


Mauchly's test of sphericity indicated that the assumption of sphericity had been violated, χ2 = 13.03, P < 0.001, and therefore, a Huynh–Feldt correction was used which showed a significant effect of time on GOHAI score; F (1.77, 175.6) = 4513.70.

Three paired samples t-tests were used to make post hoc comparisons between conditions. Pairwise comparisons using Bonferroni's showed that there was significant difference between preinsertion/6-month postinsertion, preinsertion/12-month postinsertion, and 6-month postinsertion/12-month postinsertion (P = 0.000) [Table 2].
Table 2: Pair-wise comparisons and post hoc tests using the Bonferroni correction

Click here to view


When GOHAI scores were compared individually for males and females (pre- and postinsertion), it was observed that there was statistically significant improvement in OHRQoL (male – pre = 25.02 ± 1.34 and post-12 months = 8.84 ± 1.26, P < 0.001, female – pre = 25.19 ± 0.88 and post-12 months = 9.05 ± 1.20, P < 0.001) postinsertion of denture in both the groups [Table 3].
Table 3: Comparison of preinsertion and 12 months postinsertion general oral health assessment index scores with respect to age and gender

Click here to view


Along with this, a statistically significant difference was observed for <60 and 60 years of age groups with respect to GOHAI scores, when pre- and post-scores were compared for both the age groups (<60 years: pre – 24.98 ± 0.98 and 12-month post – 8.82 ± 1.28, P < 0.001 and >60 years: pre – 28.16 ± 1.34 and 12-month post – 9.00 ± 1.20, P < 0.001) [Table 3]. No significant difference was obtained when GOHAI scores were compared for gender and age.

The sample population (n = 100) showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) improvement in GOHAI score when preinsertion (25.08 ± 1.186) and 12-month postinsertion (8.92 ± 1.236) scores were compared [Table 4]. The change in score for each item of GOHAI at preinsertion and 6 and 12 months postinsertion is summarized in [Table 5].
Table 4: Pre and post-value of GOHAI score for the sample (n+100)

Click here to view
Table 5: Change in general oral health assessment index score before and after insertion of dentures

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Patients' satisfaction with dental treatment depends on its physical, mental, and emotional status. The profession of dentistry has seen a proliferation of various instruments and scales seeking to assess the OHQoL or simply the QoL of patients with various oral conditions.[27] Older people perceive oral health equally important to life quality in a variety of ways,[28] and recent meta-analysis suggests strong evidence that tooth loss is associated with impairment of OHRQoL.[12]

According to a critical appraisal done to evaluate various tools to assess OHRQoL in elderly, GOHAI was among the most popular tools in terms of studies researched and applications from different authors other than the original authors.[29] GOHAI has been used in the Indian context to compare the clinical outcomes and treatments to OHRQoL[25],[26],[30],[31],[32],[33] and also validated in Hindi.[24],[25] Thus, the present study focused on 12-month long follow-up of patients with complete denture rehabilitation.

It was observed that the overall OHRQoL scores of the sample improved significantly at 6 and 12 months postinsertion (P < 0.001) when compared to baseline scores. Shigli and Hebbal published pilot results and observed a similar improvement in OHRQoL at 1-month postinsertion of complete denture.[26] Dable et al. also reported a significant change in GOHAI score and better OHRQoL in a 6-month follow-up postinsertion of dentures.[11] The study by Karmacharya et al. conducted in Lucknow, India, also showed improvement in OHRQoL in complete denture patients from baseline to 1st and 3rd month postdenture insertion.[33] Majority of the studies in India have evaluated the OHRQoL within a shorter period of follow-up as compared to the present study which followed up patients for 12 months. A study from Turkey reported that dental rehabilitation resulted in significant improvement in GOHAI scores and better OHRQoL 3 months after dental rehabilitation among geriatric patients.[34] Veyrune et al. conducted a study using GOHAI on 26 patients who received new prostheses. However, no statistical significant difference was observed in GOHAI scores when values for initial assessment was compared with six weeks post-insertion of denture. However, GOHAI score improved after 12 weeks after the participants received their new dentures.[35] A study by Koshino et al. also showed similar results after dental or denture rehabilitation.[36]

Mean GOHAI score in the present study was 25.08 ± 1.18, which was comparable to another study done by Agarwal et al. (30.176 ± 0.88) in Northern India.[32] No significant difference was observed between mean GOHAI scores between gender and age groups, which was in accordance with a study done by Marya et al.[31]

The QoL for the elderly has been assessed in various settings, but only a few studies in India report a long-term assessment after oral rehabilitation. Although the current study focused on 12-month follow-up with respect to OHRQoL after rehabilitation, it had its own limitations. First, a convenience sample was taken for the study; however, it may be noted that the study was primarily concerned about the comparison of preinsertion and postinsertion improvement in OHRQoL. Second, it has also been concluded that GOHAI mainly assesses functional limitations of an individual. Third, the participants of the present study were from low socioeconomic status because the institution where the present study was conducted provides dental treatment free or at highly subsidized charges.


   Conclusion Top


The present study showed a statistical significant difference in pre- and post-GOHAI score and thus further substantiated that oral rehabilitation improves OHRQoL among elderly. Therefore, routine assessment with GOHAI may serve as a complementary and surrogate measure to clinical examination, thus enabling a clinician for comprehensive assessment including clinical outcomes and individual's perception of oral health.

Acknowledgment

We would like to thank the Department of Prosthodontics, Manav Rachna Dental College, Faridabad, for providing support in terms of setting and materials for the study. We would also thank the participants for their support and cooperation during the study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Lindsay GB, Merrill RM, Hedin RJ. The contribution of public health and improved social conditions to increased life expectancy: An analysis of public awareness. J Community Med Health Educ 2014;4:311.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ten great public health achievements – United States, 1900-1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48:241-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Global Health and Aging, WHO. Available from: http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/global_health.pdf. [Last accessed on 2018 Feb 10].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Cao X. A call for global research on non-communicable diseases. Lancet 2015;385:e5-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Tyrovolas S, Koyanagi A, Panagiotakos DB, Haro JM, Kassebaum NJ, Chrepa V, et al. Population prevalence of edentulism and its association with depression and self-rated health. Sci Rep 2016;6:37083.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Kassebaum NJ, Bernabé E, Dahiya M, Bhandari B, Murray CJ, Marcenes W, et al. Global burden of severe tooth loss: A Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent Res 2014;93:20S-8S.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Rose GA. The diagnosis of ischaemic heart pain and intermittent claudication in field surveys. Bull World Health Organ 1962;27:645-58.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Gil-Montoya JA, de Mello AL, Barrios R, Gonzalez-Moles MA, Bravo M. Oral health in the elderly patient and its impact on general well-being: A nonsystematic review. Clin Interv Aging 2015;10:461-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Petersen PE, Kandelman D, Arpin S, Ogawa H. Global oral health of older people – Call for public health action. Community Dent Health 2010;27:257-67.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Emami E, de Souza RF, Kabawat M, Feine JS. The impact of edentulism on oral and general health. Int J Dent 2013;2013:498305.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Dable RA, Nazirkar GS, Singh SB, Wasnik PB. Assessment of oral health related quality of life among completely edentulous patients in Western India by using GOHAI. J Clin Diagn Res 2013;7:2063-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Gerritsen AE, Allen PF, Witter DJ, Bronkhorst EM, Creugers NH. Tooth loss and oral health-related quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010;8:126.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Griffin SO, Jones JA, Brunson D, Griffin PM, Bailey WD. Burden of oral disease among older adults and implications for public health priorities. Am J Public Health 2012;102:411-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. US Department of Health and Human Services and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Sischo L, Broder HL. Oral health-related quality of life: What, why, how, and future implications. J Dent Res 2011;90:1264-70.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Hultin M, Davidson T, Gynther G, Helgesson G, Jemt T, Lekholm U, et al. Oral rehabilitation of tooth loss: A systematic review of quantitative studies of OHRQoL. Int J Prosthodont 2012;25:543-52.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Bennadi D, Reddy CV. Oral health related quality of life. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2013;3:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Cohen LK, Jago JD. Toward the formulation of sociodental indicators. Int J Health Serv 1976;6:681-98.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Atchison KA, Dolan TA. Development of the geriatric oral health assessment index. J Dent Educ 1990;54:680-7.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Murariu A, Hanganu C, Bobu L. Evaluation of the reliability of the geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI) in institutionalized elderly in Romania: A pilot study. OHDMBSC 2010;9:11-5.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Niesten D, Witter D, Bronkhorst E, Creugers N. Validation of a Dutch version of the geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI-NL) in care-dependent and care-independent older people. BMC Geriatr 2016;16:53.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Othman WN, Muttalib KA, Bakri R, Doss JG, Jaafar N, Salleh NC, et al. Validation of the geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI) in the Malay language. J Public Health Dent 2006;66:199-204.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Tubert-Jeannin S, Riordan PJ, Morel-Papernot A, Porcheray S, Saby-Collet S. Validation of an oral health quality of life index (GOHAI) in France. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2003;31:275-84.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Mathur VP, Jain V, Pillai RS, Kalra S. Translation and validation of Hindi version of geriatric oral health assessment index. Gerodontology 2016;33:89-96.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Jain R, Dupare R, Chitguppi R, Basavaraj P. Assessment of validity and reliability of Hindi version of geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI) in Indian population. Indian J Public Health 2015;59:272-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
26.
Shigli K, Hebbal M. Assessment of changes in oral health-related quality of life among patients with complete denture before and 1 month post-insertion using geriatric oral health assessment index. Gerodontology 2010;27:167-73.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Locker D, Allen F. What do measures of 'oral health-related quality of life' measure? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2007;35:401-11.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
McGrath C, Bedi R. The importance of oral health to older people's quality of life. Gerodontology 1999;16:59-63.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Hebling E, Pereira AC. Oral health-related quality of life: A critical appraisal of assessment tools used in elderly people. Gerodontology 2007;24:151-61.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Kshetrimayum N, Reddy CV, Siddhana S, Manjunath M, Rudraswamy S, Sulavai S, et al. Oral health-related quality of life and nutritional status of institutionalized elderly population aged 60 years and above in Mysore City, India. Gerodontology 2013;30:119-25.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Marya CM, Baiju CS, Nagpal R, Rekhi A. Periodontal status and oral health related quality of life in rural elderly population of Faridabad: A pilot study. Indian J Gerontol 2013;27:397-407.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.
Agarwal R, Gupta VK, Malhotra S. Oral health related quality of life among elderly in North India. Indian J Gerontol 2014;28:1-2.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.
Karmacharya P, Saha S, Kumari M. Comparison of chewing ability, oral health-related quality of life, and nutritional status before and after the insertion of complete denture among edentulous patients in Lucknow. J Indian Assoc Public Health Dent 2017;15:145.  Back to cited text no. 33
  [Full text]  
34.
İlhan B, Çal E, Dündar N, Güneri P, Daǧhan Ş. Oral health-related quality of life among institutionalized patients after dental rehabilitation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015;15:1151-7.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.
Veyrune JL, Tubert-Jeannin S, Dutheil C, Riordan PJ. Impact of new prostheses on the oral health related quality of life of edentulous patients. Gerodontology 2005;22:3-9.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.
Koshino H, Hirai T, Ishijima T, Tsukagoshi H, Ishigami T, Tanaka Y, et al. Quality of life and masticatory function in denture wearers. J Oral Rehabil 2006;33:323-9.  Back to cited text no. 36
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]


This article has been cited by
1 Does the natural maxillary dentition influence the survival rate of mandibular metal-resin implant-supported fixed complete dentures? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Luis Eduardo Carneiro-Campos,Liana B. Freitas-Fernandes,Daniele Masterson,Marcela Baraśna Magno,Claudio Pinheiro Fernandes,Lucianne Cople Maia,Darceny Zanetta-Barbosa
The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 The impact of oral rehabilitation coupled with healthy dietary advice on the nutritional status of adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Laura Mcgowan,Leigh-Ann Mccrum,Sinead Watson,Christopher Cardwell,Bernadette McGuinness,Helen Rutherford,Victoria Paice,Ciaran Moore,Paul R. Brocklehurst,Jayne v. Woodside,Gerald Mckenna
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2019; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
   Introduction
   Methodology
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed1548    
    Printed43    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded242    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 2    

Recommend this journal