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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 276-281

Interleukin-4 and interferon-γ are possible allergic markers in pediatric patients with β-lactam hypersensitivity


1 Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia
4 Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Zafar Rasheed
Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Qassim University, P. O. Box 6655, Buraidah 51452
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2229-516X.192595

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Background:& #946;-lactam agents are known to elicit T-cell-mediated immune responses that play a central role in the onset of allergic reactions, but the involvement of specific type of cytokines in drug allergy remains largely unexplored in humans. Objectives: This study was undertaken to investigate the role of cytokines involvement in pediatric patients with β-lactam hypersensitivity and to determine whether involvement of cytokines in drug-mediated reactions are important for the perspective of allergic patient's management. Methods: β-lactam-induced hypersensitivity reactions in eighty pediatric patients were determined by clinical manifestations and skin prick or intradermal testing. Production of T-helper (Th) type-1 cytokine interferon (INF)-γ, Th-2 cytokine interleukin (IL)-4, regulatory T-cell cytokine IL-10, and other cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 were determined by sandwich ELISAs. Results: Diagnosis of β-lactam allergy was confirmed in 53 pediatric patients. IL-4 secretion in patients' sera was significantly higher as compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). However, INF-γ level in patients' sera was significantly lower as compared with controls (P < 0.05). No significant alterations were found in the protein secretion of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-6 in allergic patients as compared with controls (P > 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that IL-4 is specific marker for the diagnosis of β-lactam-induced hypersensitivity. Moreover, IL-4 in combination with INF-γ is more sensitive for the diagnosis of these reactions. This study also concludes that both IL-4 and INF-γ may play an active role in the onset of allergic reactions against β-lactam antibiotics.


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